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Fundamentals of Sound
With Applications to Speech and Hearing

2nd ed.(Levellers Press, 2016)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction to Waves

1-A Types of Waves
1-B Wave Shapes
1-C. Propagation Velocity and Medium Velocity
1-D. Sinusoidal Waves: More Terminology
1-E. Oscillating Things and Sinusoidal Waves
1-F. Application of the Concept of Waves to Sound
1-G. Relationship Among v, f and
1-H. Wave Velocity and Properties of the Medium
1-I. Elastic Properties of Air
1-J. Reflection and Transmission of Waves
1-K. Interference and Superposition

Chapter 2. Standing Waves in Ropes and Strings
2-A.Formation of Standing Waves
2-B Boundary Conditions
2-C. Normal Modes for a String Tied at Both Ends
2-D. Normal Modes for String Tied at One End and Free  at the Other
2-E. Normal Modes for a String Loose at Both Ends

Chapter 3. Standing Waves in Air Columns
3-A. Longitudinal Displacement Waves
3-B. Normal Modes for an Air Column Closed at Both Ends
3-C. Normal Modes for an Air Column Open at Both Ends
3-D. Normal Modes for an Air Column With One End Open a and One End Closed

Chapter 4. Resonance

Chapter 5. Wavefronts

5-A. Wavefronts
5-B. Wavefronts and Space Interference
5-C. Diffraction of Waves

Chapter 6. Complex Waves
6-A. Phase of a Wave
6-B. Complex Wave Forms
6-C. Complex Traveling Waves
6-D. Complex Standing Waves
6-E Beats
6-F. Sound Quality
6-G. Non-Repetitive Sounds

Chapter 7. Wave Analysis
7-A. Frequency Spectrum
7-B. Fourier Analysis
7-C. Behavior of the String with Time
7-D. Rules for Repeat Frequencies of Complex Waves
7-E. Filters
7-F. Fourier Analysis of Traveling Waves

Chapter 8. Speech Production
8-A. Vocal Organs
8-B. Vocal Fold Vibration
8-C. Acoustic Properties of the Vocal Tract
8-D. Sound Spectrographs

Chapter 9. Acoustics of Different Speech Sounds
9-A. Vowels
9-B. Consonants
9-C. Glide and Liquid Consonants
9-D. Nasal Consonants
9-E. Fricative Consonants
9-F. Stop Consonants
9-G. Coarticulation

Chapter 10. Work and Energy
10-A. Work and Energy
10-B. Work-Energy Theorem
10-C. Wave Energy
10-D. Relation of Wave Energy to Wave Amplitude
10-E. Units of Energy
10-F. Relation of Energy to Power
10-G. Relation of Power to Intensity
10-H. Audible Levels of Intensity
10-I. Scientific Notation (Powers of Ten)
10-J. Expressing Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation
10-K. Addition and Subtraction of Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation
10-L. Multiplication and Division of Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation

Chapter 11. Perception of Sound Intensity

11-A. The Bel Scale for Sound Intensities
11-B. The Decibel Scale for Sound Intensities
11-C. Fractional Powers of Ten
11-D. Logarithms
11-E. Logs of Products and Quotients
11-F. Logs of Numbers Between 0 and 1, and Greater than 10
11-G. Logs and Negative Numbers
11-H. Some Examples Involving Decibels
11-I. Intensity Level vs. Loudness Level
11-J. Negative Decibel Values
11-K. The Addition of Intensity and Loudness

Chapter 12. The Ear and the Hearing Mechanism
12-A. The Outer Ear
12-B. The Middle Ear
12-C. The Inner Ear
12-D. The Process of Hearing

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© William J. Mullin