*Fundamentals
of Sound*

With Applications to Speech and Hearing

2nd ed.(Levellers Press, 2016)

Table of Contents

**Chapter 1. Introduction to Waves**

1-A Types of Waves

1-B Wave Shapes

1-C. Propagation Velocity and Medium Velocity

1-D. Sinusoidal Waves: More Terminology

1-E. Oscillating Things and Sinusoidal Waves

1-F. Application of the Concept of Waves to Sound

1-G. Relationship Among *v*,* f* and

1-H. Wave Velocity and Properties of the Medium

1-I. Elastic Properties of Air

1-J. Reflection and Transmission of Waves

1-K. Interference and Superposition

Exercises

**Chapter
2. Standing Waves in Ropes and Strings**

2-A.Formation of Standing Waves

2-B Boundary Conditions

2-C. Normal Modes for a String Tied at Both Ends

2-D. Normal Modes for String Tied at One End and Free at
the Other

2-E. Normal Modes for a String Loose at Both Ends

Exercises

**Chapter 3. Standing Waves in Air Columns**

3-A. Longitudinal Displacement Waves

3-B. Normal Modes for an Air Column Closed at Both Ends

3-C. Normal Modes for an Air Column Open at Both Ends

3-D. Normal Modes for an Air Column With One End Open a and One End
Closed

Exercises

**Chapter 4. Resonance**

Exercises

Chapter 5. Wavefronts

5-A. Wavefronts

5-B. Wavefronts and Space Interference

5-C. Diffraction of Waves

Exercises

**Chapter 6. Complex Waves**

6-A. Phase of a Wave

6-B. Complex Wave Forms

6-C. Complex Traveling Waves

6-D. Complex Standing Waves

6-E Beats

6-F. Sound Quality

6-G. Non-Repetitive Sounds

Exercises

**Chapter 7. Wave Analysis**

7-A. Frequency Spectrum

7-B. Fourier Analysis

7-C. Behavior of the String with Time

7-D. Rules for Repeat Frequencies of Complex Waves

7-E. Filters

7-F. Fourier Analysis of Traveling Waves

Exercises

**Chapter 8. Speech Production**

8-A. Vocal Organs

8-B. Vocal Fold Vibration

8-C. Acoustic Properties of the Vocal Tract

8-D. Sound Spectrographs

Exercises

**Chapter 9. Acoustics of Different Speech Sounds**

9-A. Vowels

9-B. Consonants

9-C. Glide and Liquid Consonants

9-D. Nasal Consonants

9-E. Fricative Consonants

9-F. Stop Consonants

9-G. Coarticulation

Exercises

**Chapter 10. Work and Energy**

10-A. Work and Energy

10-B. Work-Energy Theorem

10-C. Wave Energy

10-D. Relation of Wave Energy to Wave Amplitude

10-E. Units of Energy

10-F. Relation of Energy to Power

10-G. Relation of Power to Intensity

10-H. Audible Levels of Intensity

10-I. Scientific Notation (Powers of Ten)

10-J. Expressing Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation

10-K. Addition and Subtraction of Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific Notation

10-L. Multiplication and Division of Arbitrary Numbers in Scientific
Notation

Exercises

**Chapter 11. Perception of Sound Intensity**

11-A. The Bel Scale for Sound Intensities

11-B. The Decibel Scale for Sound Intensities

11-C. Fractional Powers of Ten

11-D. Logarithms

11-E. Logs of Products and Quotients

11-F. Logs of Numbers Between 0 and 1, and Greater than 10

11-G. Logs and Negative Numbers

11-H. Some Examples Involving Decibels

11-I. Intensity Level vs. Loudness Level

11-J. Negative Decibel Values

11-K. The Addition of Intensity and Loudness

Exercises

**Chapter 12. The Ear and the Hearing Mechanism**

12-A. The Outer Ear

12-B. The Middle Ear

12-C. The Inner Ear

12-D. The Process of Hearing

Exercises